31 Oct 2010

Unicorn and Pegasus, game for you!!


Unicorn, also known as licórnio, is a mythological animal that has the shape of a horse, usually white, with a single spiral horn. His image is associated with purity and strength.According to the narratives are gentle beings, but women are virgins who are better able to touch them.

Pegasus (Peg), the Winged Horse, is a constellation of the northern celestial hemisphere. The genitive, used to form names of stars, is Pegasi.

Saddles and stirrups

The first Saddles, served as model for the contemporary, were made in the early years of the Christian era by a nomadic tribe of the Black Sea area and were made with wooden frames. Are now used strips of wood but are reinforced with metal plates or they are replaced by plastic.
Portuguese saddle:
Can be used for almost all purposes (Bullfighting, rides, riding lessons). To manufacture the chorus is used pork and strips of metal that are flat on the frame so as to give more elasticity.

General-purpose saddle (English or Hungarian):Can be used for all purposes (jump, cross country racing, hunting, riding lessons etc.).To manufacture the chorus is used pork and strips of metal that are flat on the frame so as to give more elasticity.
Western Saddles:Are saddles that were brought to America by Spaniards and that there were appropriate to the cowboys. These saddles weigh twice as much English but can adjust to almost all horses without risk of hurting him, are comfortable for long distances and has space for all objects that tend to bring the Cowboys.
Saddles SpecialAre saddles that are made with specific purpose. There are saddles for the jumps, which are closely cut in front and lighter; saddles for dressage, which has a cut in sweat, allowing lengthening the double belt of the stirrup. There are saddles for classes, for long distances to shows and races (weighing about 450gr).

 How to choose the best saddle:
Use: leisure, business or sport?A saddle to ride may be simpler and lighter, while the supporters of processions and parades prefer more ornate designs.Breed type and conformation of horseMeasures of the saddle must match the anatomy of the animal. Saddles large or too small to cause injuries and destruction of the horse, and cause him rebellious attitude and can do it or cram hump.Rider height and measurements:The good saddle manufacturers offer adequate measures for children and adults, there are also variations according to the weight and measures of the user. Comfort and safety are essential in order to ride safely.Good Saddles:"Their support is evenly saddlecloths in dorsal muscles of the horse; The calipers are fixed in a position that allows the proper placement of the leg of the rider, upright as if he was standing with legs slightly bent, has the stirrup leathers made of a strip leather and strong piece, without seams be amended by; leather is made resistant to excessive stretching or wear prematurely; has fittings made of stainless metal; His girth girths or has, thickness and finish that prevents diaper rash on the horse. "
Parts of the saddle:
Switch (back):The height and tilt also varies widely. If it is very sloped, will push the seat back, if high-rise and low sloping coquis discomfort. The ideal height and tilt is moderate.Seat:The seat of the saddle front should tend to be deep and comfortable, the bandstand is the rider's weight to be directed to the dorsal region, not to press the back where the kidneys are located, very sensitive organs.Suador:Bottom of the saddle, which rests on the external suador. The suador has a filler that acts as a buffer and may be grass, wool or polyester. Without this protection, the direct friction results in bruises, which are open sores that develop along the withers, the back and / or fillet, being difficult to heal. If the horse is bulky in his thoracic region, will require a saddle suador more open in the opposite case, will require a saddle suador more closed. The saddle should be positioned so as not to limit movement of the shoulders (from the middle of the withers).Frame:It is the structure of the saddle, may be iron (makes heavier saddle), steel, wood (moderate weight) or fiber (makes lighter saddle).
Stirrups:It serves as a footrest, preventing it from swaying with the movements of the horse. The shape of the steps varies, the stirrups are ideal bell-shaped, why not hold your feet with the ease of round brackets, which would be dangerous in case of falls, provide better support, especially if the base is wide and covered in rubber A wide base is needed in the stirrups to saddles Endurance, an activity where there are more chances of the rider to lose support in his stirrups. A special type of stirrup is the "rescue" of mobile base.The material used for fabrication of stirrups can be stainless steel, metal, iron or aluminum.Loros:They are the parts that hold the leather straps, being stuck in the frame of the saddle through hoops.Cinch and girth:The girth is a piece that goes through the belly of the horse with the purpose of adjusting the saddle. The girth is a piece more closely, which passes through the region of Cilhadouro, just behind the elbow.

Horses made with three branches

tree-branch-sculpture (2)
They are beautiful sculptures made of three trunks. Views from afar are confused with real horses.
Step by step:


tree-branch-sculpture (11)

The Dressage Simulator


“The Ultimate Fully Interactive Horse Simulator”

The Interactive Dressage Simulator simulates a life like horse which is capable of performing movements from walk to piaffe. The interactive screen shows the digital horse doing piaffe, passage and flying change. The simulator is incredibly useful for instruction; it enables the rider (and instructor) to learn a lot in a very short space of time. There are five key developments within the Dressage Simulator:

1. Saddle Sensors:
The sensors situated beneath the rider’s saddle can inform the rider (and instructor), by visual feedback on screen, of how the rider’s weight is distributed. The rider’s balance and posture can be clearly indicated by the sensors’ response to the rider’s weight moving forwards, backwards and sideways, throughout all the gaits of the horse and within the range of simulated activities – whether free-riding or undertaking the dressage tests.

This facility is greatly appreciated by the riders and instructors because it enables posture, positioning and balance to be corrected, thus improving the rider’s seat and comfort during riding. The interactive feedback allows for immediate correction and the ability to monitor whether correction is sustained.

The rider and horse derive benefit from the correct distribution of weight carried through the saddle.

Head and Neck Movements
2. Head and Neck Movements:
There are sensors positioned on the horse’s head and neck, which allow the rider (and instructor) to see when there is correct flexion in the horse’s head and neck by the correct use of the reins.

Lateral Action
3. Lateral Action:
The Dressage Horse Simulator simulates the lateral body lean of a real horse when engaged in walk and trot. Left and right leg canter are also possible. The visual imagery on screen enhances the rider’s sensation of the horse’s lateral movements.

Leg Sensors
4. Leg Sensors:
There are three sets of sensors attached to each side of the simulator’s lower body. These sensors allow the rider to control the movements of the horse simulator by correct leg pressure to start the walk, to moving through trot and canter and all the actions the rider wants to practise; the horse can go straight into canter from halt.

Interactive Software
5. Interactive Software:
The interactive simulator and screen will provide feedback on movements, so the rider can improve his/her marks. It is possible to complete the test and then play back on the screen.

Charger Escape!!


pony is a small horse (Equus ferus caballus) with a specific conformation and temperament. There are many different breeds of ponies. Compared to horses, ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails and overall coat, as well as proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, thicker necks, and shorter heads with broader foreheads. On occasion, people who are unfamiliar with horses may confuse an adult pony with a foal, which is a young, immature horse.
Ponies are generally considered intelligent and friendly, though sometimes they also are described as stubborn or devious. The differences of opinion often result from an individual pony's degree of proper training. Ponies trained by inexperienced individuals, or only ridden by beginners, can turn out to be spoiled because their riders typically lack the experience base to correct bad habits. Properly trained ponies are appropriate mounts for children who are learning to ride. Larger ponies can be ridden by adults, as ponies are usually strong for their size.
The pony originated from original wild horse prototypes that developed small stature due to living on the margins of livable horse habitat. These smaller animals weredomesticated and bred for various purposes all over the Northern hemisphere.
Ponies were historically used for driving and freight transport, as children's mounts, for recreational riding, and later as competitors and performers in their own right. During the Industrial Revolution, particularly in Great Britain, a significant number were used as "pit ponies", hauling loads of coal up from the mines.

Highland Pony, demonstrating the pony characteristics of sturdy bone, thick mane and tail, small head, and small overall size.

Horses and ponies

A pony foal. Pony foals are smaller than horse foals, but both have long legs and small bodies
For many forms of competition, the official definition of a pony is a horse that measures less than 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) at the withers. Horses are 14.2 or taller. The International Federation for Equestrian Sports defines the official cutoff point at 148 centimetres (58.27 in) (just over 14.2 h) without shoes and 149 centimetres (58.66 in) (just over 14.2-1/2 h) with shoes, though allows a margin for competition measurement of up to 150 centimetres (59.1 in) (14.3 h) without shoes, or 151 centimetres (59.45 in) (just under 14.3-1/2 h) with shoes. However, the term "pony" can be used in general (or affectionately) for any small horse, regardless of its actual size or breed. Furthermore, some horse breeds may have individuals who mature under that height but are still called "horses" and are allowed to compete as horses. In Australia horses that measure from 14 hands to 15 hands are known as a "galloway", and ponies in Australia measure under 14 hands.
People who are unfamiliar with horses may confuse an adult pony with a young, immature horse. While foals that will grow up to be horse-sized may be no taller than some ponies in their first months of life, their body proportions are very different. A pony can be ridden and put to work, while a foal is too young to be ridden or used as aworking animal. Foals, whether they grow up to be horse or pony-sized, can be distinguished from adult horses by their extremely long legs and slim bodies. Their heads and eyes also exhibit juvenile characteristics. Furthermore, in most cases, nursing foals will be in very close proximity to a mare who is the mother (dam) of the foal. While ponies exhibit some neoteny with the wide foreheads and small size, their body proportions are similar to that of an adult horse.


Ponies originally developed as a landrace adapted to a harsh natural environment, and were considered part of the "draft" subtype typical of Northern Europe.Domesticated ponies of all breeds originally developed mainly from the need for a working animal that could fulfill specific local draft and transportation needs while surviving in harsh environments. However, by the 20th century, many pony breeds had Arabian and other blood added to make a more refined pony suitable for riding.


An Australian pony shown under saddle.
Ponies are seen in many different equestrian pursuits. Some breeds, such as the Hackney pony, are primarily used for driving, while other breeds, such as the Connemara pony and Australian Pony, are used primarily for riding. Others, such as the Welsh pony, are used for both riding and driving.

Shetland pony shown in harness.
Ponies compete at events ranging from huntersEnglish riding on the flat, harness, and western riding classes at horse shows, to other competitive events such as gymkhana and combined driving. They are seen in casual pursuits such as trail riding. Ponies also are shown in dressageequitation, and other events, even in international-level competition. Though many exhibitors confine themselves to classes just for ponies, top ponies are competitive against full-sized horses. For example, a 14.1 handpony named Stroller was a member of the British Equestrian show jumping team, and won the silver medal at the 1968 Summer Olympics. More recently, the 14.1-3/4 hand pony Theodore O'Connor won the gold medal in eventing at the 2007 Pan American Games. There is no direct correlation between a horse's size and its inherent athletic ability.
Pony Clubs, open to young people who own either horses or ponies, are formed worldwide to educate young people about horses, promote responsible horse ownership, and also sponsor competitive events for young people and smaller horses.
In many parts of the world ponies are also still used as working animals, as pack animals and for pulling various horse-drawn vehicles. They are sometimes seen attraveling carnivals, or at children's private parties where small children can take short rides on ponies that are saddled and then either led individually or hitched to a "pony wheel" (a non-motorized device akin to a hot walker) that leads six to eight ponies at a time. Ponies are sometimes seen at summer camps for children, and in some places, particularly Ireland and the UK, larger ponies may even carry adults on Equitourism vacations.

Breeds and types

The Shetland pony is one of the smallest pony breeds, but also is very strong
Pony breeds have developed all over the world, particularly in cold and harsh climates where hardy, sturdy, working animals were needed. The "Four foundations theory"suggests that ponies, particularly in Europe, may have descended from the "draft" subspecies of Equus ferus. Nearly all pony breeds share the ability to thrive on a more limited diet than that of a regular-sized horse, and are remarkably strong for their size. Some breeds, such as the Shetland pony are able to pull as much weight as a draft horse. Others, such as the Connemara pony, are recognized for their ability to carry a full-sized adult rider.

The Connemara pony is a larger pony which occasionally matures over 14.2 hands
For showing purposes, ponies are often grouped into small, medium, and large sizes. Small ponies are 12.2 hands (50 inches (130 cm)) and under, medium ponies are over 12.2 but no taller than 13.2 hands (54 inches (140 cm)), and large ponies are over 13.2 hands but no taller than 14.2 hands.
The smallest equines are called miniature horses by many of their breeders and breed organizations, rather than ponies, but stand smaller than small ponies, usually no taller than 38 inches (97 cm) at the withers. However, there are also miniature ponybreeds.

Breeds that are not ponies

The full-sized horses used for polo are called "polo ponies," even though they are taller than ponies
Some horse breeds are not considered ponies, even when they have some animals that measure under 14.2 hands. This is usually due to body build, traditional uses and overall physiology. Breeds that are considered horses regardless of height include the Arabian horseAmerican Quarter Horse and the Morgan horse, all of which have individual members both over and under 14.2 hands.

The Icelandic horse is considered a horse, not a pony, by those who own and breed them
Other horse breeds, such as Icelandic Horse and Fjord Horse, may sometimes be pony-sized or have some pony characteristics, such as a heavy coat, thick mane, and heavy bone, but are generally classified as "horses" by their respective registries. In cases such as these, there can be considerable debate over whether to call certain breeds "horses" or "ponies." However, individual breed registries usually are the arbiters of such debates, weighing the relative horse and pony characteristics of a breed. In some breeds, such as the Welsh pony, the horse-versus-pony controversy is resolved by creating separate divisions for consistently horse-sized animals, such as the "Section D" Welsh Cob
Some horses may be pony height due to environment more than genetics. For example, the Chincoteague pony, a feral horsethat lives on Assateague Island off the coast of Virginia, often matures to the height of an average small horse when raised from a foal under domesticated conditions.

There is debate over whether the feral Chincoteague ponies of Assateague Island are horses or ponies
Conversely, the term "pony" is occasionally used to describe horses of normal height. Horses used for polo are often called "polo ponies", though in the United States and the United Kingdom, they are often of Thoroughbred breeding and often well over 14.2 hands. American Indian tribes also have the tradition of referring to their horses as "ponies," when speaking in English, even though many of the Mustang horses they used in the 19th century were close to or over 14.2 hh, and most horses owned and bred by Native peoples today are of full horse height. The term "pony" is also sometimes used to describe a full-sized horse in a humorous or affectionate sense.
The United States Pony Club defines "pony" to be any mount that is ridden by a member regardless of its breed or size. Persons up to 25 years old are eligible for membership, and some of the members' "ponies" actually are full-size horses.

Pony Maker