7 Nov 2010

Common Diseases



Strangles Gurme - adenitis equina





Symptoms: Runny nose accompanied by coughing, pharyngeal ganglia, sub-lingual, submaxillary and proparotídeos increased, making breathing painful, and may suffocate.Injuries: creamy pus abscess counting the pharynx, enlarged spleen with purulent foci.Material for consideration: in general it is not necessary because it is easily diagnosed by clinical symptoms.Prophylaxis: disinfection of stalls, stalls, drinking fountains, troughs and other facilities and vaccination.Treatment: Isolate the sick and keep under review the suspects; vaccinate.

Tetanus
Symptoms: rigidity or localized, "trismus" jaws, nostrils dilated distended head, pricked ears and approximate; glue lifted, eyes out of their sockets; locomotion difficult and high fever.Injuries: There are no typical lesions at necropsy.Material for examination: scraping the pus or contaminated wounds to isolate germ little used.Prophylaxis: disinfection of surgical and accidental wounds, especially to the members who must be protected with bandages, anti-tetanus serum, sterile surgical instruments.Treatment: urotropina, antispasmodics and anti-tetanus serum in massive doses, except early in the disease, it is of little value. Keep the animal shelter from sunlight, rain, noise and other existing agents.

Mal chairs, trypanosomiasis (t.equinum)
Symptoms: weight loss, intermittent fever and relapsing paralysis of hind limbs, which shift members from one side to another when the animal trot; progressing to paralysis, which forces the animal to remain recumbent until death.Injuries: no features except anemia and jaundice Material for examination: blood smears. Prophylaxis: isolation of suspected areas; sacrificing the sickest burn the corpses.Treatment: quimeoterápicos specific, but with dubious results, depending on the stage of disease.

Mal intercourse, poorly-faveiro Durin, trypanosomiasis (t. equiperdum)
Symptoms: arousal of males, frequent urination, urethral irritation, swelling and inflammation in the genital lymph nodes groin plates, depigmentation of the skin of the perineum and genitals. In females, the vulva and udder becomes inflamed, with signs of depigmentation.Injuries: the anemia and the symptoms described.Material for examination: blood smears.Prophylaxis isolate contaminated areas, and breeding individuals.Treatment: quimeoterápicos specific disinfection and use of local healing.

Sponge, summer injury - Habronema
Symptoms: three forms: gastric, lung and skin, in the first two, few clinical signs in skin, grain, forcing the animal to scratch himself, the bleeding point, attracting the flies to new premises.Injuries: the symptoms described.Material for examination of feces.Prophylaxis to combat flies, protect wounds.Treatment in cutaneous surgery and the use of healing products.

Worms - helminthiases
Symptoms: gastro-intestinal disturbances and circulatory mortality and with weight loss, bloody stools, cramps, and anemia.Injuries: phlegm in the intestine and injured intestine with worms; ulcers.
Material for examination of feces.
Prophylaxis not create in low lands, marshes.Treatment: use of dewormers.



Scabies - acariosis
Symptoms: intense itching at night and during the hottest hours of the day; crusts on the skin.Injuries: waxing and tunnels in the skin.Material for examination: shaved skin.Prophylaxis rigorous disinfection of premises and equipment arreamento.Treatment: Isolate the sick, give baths with specific chemicals.

Gasterofilose
Symptoms: usually attacks animals winters; if the animal starts to scratch himself with his lips, tongue and teeth, weight loss, violent colic, anemia, weakness and bleeding in severe cases.Material for examination: parts of the digestive tract.Prophylaxis: thorough cleaning, disinfecting, fighting the flies.Treatment: vitamin complex, D and B.

Rickets
Symptoms: growth disorders, thinness, joints increased in volume by the opaque defects in uprightness and walk.Injuries: those described in the symptoms; porous bones; higher porosity at the edges.Material for examination: it is not necessary.Prophylaxis: balanced nutrition, especially minerals.Treatment: difficult recovery in severe cases, proper nutrition, strengthening of vitamins ADE B complex, iron and minerals.

Swollen face - osteoarthritis



Symptoms: progressive bulging of the facial bones and increased thickness of the jaws on both sides of the head, fragile bones, fractures.Injuries: deformation of the skull bones.Material for examination: non-coagulated whole blood, serum, feces, pasture forage, food concentrates used in feed.Prophylaxis: balanced diet with proper ratio of calcium, phosphorus, forage-based legumes (alfalfa), to reduce the proportions of corn and wheat or rice, pasture grass legume; patch of grassland soils (liming), avoid flooded pastures; preventive treatment of worms mineral structures with additional calcium salts and vitamin D.Treatment: stay concentrated rations based on corn and wheat bran, hay supply of legumes (alfalfa); minerals to establish good Ca: P ratio in the diet. The administration of Ca and P may be injectable or oral.

Watered



Symptoms: congestion of mucous membranes; rapid breathing, swelling in the limbs, rapid pulse, difficulty walking; sustain members of the beads, shells and tails hot inflamed.Injuries: symptomatic women.Prophylaxis: good hygiene, and nutrition. Treatment: bleeding, unshoe, hydrating serum.


Skin diseases

Hipersensibilidade à Picada das Moscas

The fungi are normally present in the environment and the animal skin with a certain abundance, but only some species have the ability, under certain circumstances, cause disease. Traditionally, skin problems in horses are not considered particularly worrisome situations. In fact, some eventually resolve spontaneously without any treatment, although it may take some time. Others, however, become quite critical, both for the possibility of transmission to humans, as is the case of tinea (fungal infection) and scabies (infection caused by mites, tiny parasites of the skin) or the severity of the disease itself and its symptoms.

Infecção por Fungos


(Hypersensitivity to the sting of flies)
Animals with intense itching, for example, up to scratch himself in harness or on any rough surface or cutting, causing wounds that are a gateway to all kinds of infections.Let us now dwell on some situations that affect the skin of horses, starting with the most frequent. The fungi are normally present in the environment and the animal skin with a certain abundance, but only some species have the ability, under certain circumstances, to cause illness (or had dermatophytosis). Therefore, a sample of hair that shows the presence of fungi is not necessarily significant. On the other hand, fungi are agents that easily snap when other factors secondarily damage the skin, or even when the immune system is weakened, sometimes not being the primary cause of the disease. In this type of fungal infection (dermatophyte) the affected animals show several areas of desquamation and alopecia (hairless zones), with or without itching, and is not generally involved the mane and tail.

(Fungal Infection)

Infecção por Fungos

The cases of allergic nature are also quite common and can be caused by food, by contact with chemicals used in the facilities, drugs, cleaning agents or pesticides used on animals by insect bites, etc. .. The bites of flies are just one of the main causes of allergic reactions in the horse. There is a variety capable of triggering such reactions, but the Culicoides are perhaps the most frequent. Flies are extremely small (1-3 mm) but painful sting, active in hot weather and no wind (because they are weak fliers) and feed from dusk until dawn. The larvae develop in stagnant water. Only a few horses develop a hypersensitivity reaction to their bites, though there is some familial predisposition. Lesions in the head, ears, chest, mane and tail base, and may vary by species of Culicoides. The intense itching is the principal cause of injuries, causing the animals to itch on any edge or even bite themselves. This situation tends to worsen year after year, after an apparent improvement during the winter months, and incurable condition that Culicoides are present.

(Fungal Infection)
Their treatment is, therefore, control of these insects through the stable during the periods in which they feed, the use of insecticides or repellents for mosquito nets, and also by administration of appropriate medications to eliminate or reduce the itching .Other agents that can cause intense itching of scabies mites are. These parasites cause lesions in different locations depending on the species to which they belong: in the head and neck at the base of the mane and tail, or limbs, but in later stages the lesions may spread to other areas. This disease is transmitted by direct contact and is contagious to humans, though usually without great seriousness. Some animals develop inflammatory reactions in superficial pigmented or white areas of the body (usually on the face and the extremities of limbs). Photosensitized processes are, generally associated with the ingestion of certain plants or changes dometabolismo liver. As can be seen, apparently identical situations may have very different causes.

(Photosensitizers)
The base of the tail scratched and hairless, for example, is usually a sign of intestinal parasites, but it may be a case of insect bite hypersensitivity, food allergy, scabies or just a behavioral addiction. Even after the horse stop scratching still have to wait one to two months until the tail to grow back. The treatments used in equine dermatology are varied depending on the situation as intended, but let us not forget that treat animals may not be enough: the environment, litter, cleaning material, harness, deserve attention because they are many times involved. As for competition horses, is also a call to action: a simple ointment, spray or any other product applied to the skin may contain substances which, when absorbed, could be detected later in doping control tests.

Fotosensibilização
Equine Dental


Equine dentistry is a relatively new area of veterinary medicine as a specialty. Owners, trainers and veterinarians are increasingly valuing the examination and dental treatment, including them in your routine.The main reasons why there is great need for this practice are: We changed the habits and eating patterns through domestication of horses and containment, we often select breeding animals without regard to teething problems, and we demand more of ourperformance horses, starting them in sports at a young age.
The dentist's role in taming is essential because the treatment becomes comfort promoted by the coach's job and learning the foal easier and less stressful, improving consequently the final result.Colic, decreased athletic performance and loss of physical condition can be directly related to oral health of the horse.The problems most commonly found in oral exams are: 1 - Too many points of enamel.Tips tooth, which in excess, can injure the cheeks and tongue, causing difficulty chewing and discomfort with the use of butt-and embocadura.2 Malocclusion, or an abnormal relationship between the upper and lower teeth, which can cause sharp formations, such as excessive enamel points, hooks and beaks and unevenness, such as ramps and stairs in dentes.3 Wolf-Tooth. This tooth is vestigial, no chewing function, but can hurt the cheeks, tongue, and / or clash with the bridle and can be extremely desconfortável.4 Disorders-eruption. Deciduous teeth (milk) are impacted more common than you think, and require extraction, which may cause disturbances in the eruption of permanent teeth, periodontal disease and dor.5 - tooth fractures. Fractures are commonly found in the examination of the oral cavity of horses. With fragments displaced fractures can cause pain in the cheeks and tongue, promoting exposure and possible contamination of the dental pulp with endodontic disease and the consequent formation of periapical abscess.


It is very important to start the oral exams in foals as soon as possible, because sometimes we can see that problems can be resolved when the animal is still young, preventing disorders that can be decisive in its development, as well as in exhibitions and competitions. The horse may react to discomfort and pain throwing his head up high, shaking his head, biting the mouth, with lack of support, making moves to the sides, or otherwise find that to reject the mouth.Horses that are in constant maintenance have better chewing and digestion, making better food and decreasing the risk of colic. Moreover, there is the perceived comfort when mounting.
The periodic treatment, usually two times a year, is essential for the maintenance of "oral health" of the horses because the interference caused by abnormal wear of teeth can interfere with the health, performance, in temperament and longevity of your horse.Anyway, dentistry promotes notable improvements in the animals with their physical, athletic, and why not, creating psychological conditions for the horse to develop their full potential.

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for the post.It was really helpful to solve my confusion,

    Occupational Medicine

    ReplyDelete